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墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

在编写智能合约的时候需要注意的一个主要的安全特性:防止溢出和下溢。为了防止这些情况,OpenZeppelin建立了一个叫做SafeMath的库(library),默认情况下可以防止这些问题。

什么是溢出(overflow)

假设我们有一个uint8, 只能存储8 bit数据。这意味着我们能存储的最大数字就是二进制11111111(或者说十进制的2^8-1 =255).

来看看下面的代码。最后 number 将会是什么值?

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

在这个例子中,我们导致了溢出—虽然我们加了1,但是number出乎意料地等于0了。

下溢(underflow)也类似,如果你从一个等于0的uint8减去1, 它将变成255 (因为uint是无符号的,其不能等于负数)。

分析 SafeMath源码

1.加法,仅限内部调用,返回 uint256

require(c>=a && c>=b); //验证结果: 两个正数相加,和一定大于每个加数

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

2.减法,仅限内部调用,返回 uint256

require(b <= a) 因为返回值需要是 正数,所以此处判断 b必须小于等于a

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

3.乘法,仅限内部调用,返回 uint256

uint256 c = a * b; 容易溢出,比如 a=2,b=2^255 乘积 2^256 刚好溢出。结果取后面的256位(全为0),导致 c=0。

所以使用 (a == 0 || c / a == b),验证结果的一致性。

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

4.除法,仅限内部调用,返回 uint256

require(b > 0), 确保被除数不能为0

require(a == b * c + a % b);防止溢出,验证结果的一致性

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

总结:

不要直接使用简单的 “+-*/” ,尽量使用 library SafeMath 中的函数,避免整数溢出的隐患。

附:完整源码

pragma solidity ^0.4.24;

library SafeMath {

/**

* @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on

* overflow.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `+` operator.

*

* Requirements:

* – Addition cannot overflow.

*/

function safeAdd(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {

uint256 c = a + b;

require(c >= a, “SafeMath: addition overflow”);

return c;

}

/**

* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on

* overflow (when the result is negative).

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `-` operator.

*

* Requirements:

* – Subtraction cannot overflow.

*/

function safeSub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {

return safeSub(a, b, “SafeMath: subtraction overflow”);

}

/**

* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on

* overflow (when the result is negative).

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `-` operator.

*

* Requirements:

* – Subtraction cannot overflow.

*

* NOTE: This is a feature of the next version of OpenZeppelin Contracts.

* @dev Get it via `npm install @openzeppelin/[email protected]`.

*/

function safeSub(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {

require(b <= a, errorMessage);

uint256 c = a – b;

return c;

}

/**

* @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on

* overflow.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `*` operator.

*

* Requirements:

* – Multiplication cannot overflow.

*/

function safeMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {

// Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring ‘a’ not being zero, but the

// benefit is lost if ‘b’ is also tested.

if (a == 0) {

return 0;

}

uint256 c = a * b;

require(c / a == b, “SafeMath: multiplication overflow”);

return c;

}

/**

* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on

* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `/` operator. Note: this function uses a

* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity

* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).

*

* Requirements:

* – The divisor cannot be zero.

*/

function safeDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {

return safeDiv(a, b, “SafeMath: division by zero”);

}

/**

* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts with custom message on

* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `/` operator. Note: this function uses a

* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity

* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).

*

* Requirements:

* – The divisor cannot be zero.

* NOTE: This is a feature of the next version of OpenZeppelin Contracts.

* @dev Get it via `npm install @openzeppelin/[email protected]`.

*/

function safeDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {

// Solidity only automatically asserts when dividing by 0

require(b > 0, errorMessage);

uint256 c = a / b;

return c;

}

/**

* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),

* Reverts when dividing by zero.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`

* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an

* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).

*

* Requirements:

* – The divisor cannot be zero.

*/

function safeMod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {

return safeMod(a, b, “SafeMath: modulo by zero”);

}

/**

* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),

* Reverts with custom message when dividing by zero.

*

* Counterpart to Solidity’s `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`

* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an

* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).

*

* Requirements:

* – The divisor cannot be zero.

*

* NOTE: This is a feature of the next version of OpenZeppelin Contracts.

* @dev Get it via `npm install @openzeppelin/[email protected]`.

*/

function safeMod(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {

require(b != 0, errorMessage);

return a % b;

}

}

墨客科普 | M O A C BlockChain SafeMath库

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